Thursday, December 14, 2017


A group of words may take the place of a part of speech

 The Father of Water is the Mississippi.

  A girl with blue eyes stood at the window.

  You are looking well.

  The Father of Waters is used as a noun, since it names something.

  With blue eyes takes the place of an adjective (blue-eyed), and   modifies girl.

  At the window indicates, as an adverb might, where the girl stood, and modifies stood.

  Are looking could be replaced by the verb look.

A group of connected words, not containing a subject and a predicate, is called a phrase.

A phrase is often equivalent to a part of speech.

1. A phrase used as a noun is called a noun-phrase.

2. A phrase used as a verb is called a verb-phrase.

3. A phrase used as an adjective is called an adjective phrase.

4. A phrase used as an adverb is called an adverbial phrase.

  In the examples in The Father of Waters is a noun-phrase; with blue eyes, an adjective phrase; at the window, an adverbial phrase; are looking, a verb-phrase.

Many adjective and adverbial phrases consist of a preposition and its object, with or without other words.

  Your umbrella is in the corner.

  He has a heart of oak.

  A cup with a broken handle stood on the shelf.

  My house of cards fell to the floor in a heap.

Adjective or adverbial phrases consisting of a preposition and its object, with or without other words, may be called prepositional phrases.

Wednesday, December 13, 2017

Reading: Poem

   Read the poem
   Sixty seconds make a minute,
    Something sure you can learn in it;
    Sixty minutes make an hour,
    Work with all your might and power;
    Twenty-four hours make a day,
    Time enough for work and play.
    Seven days a week will make;
    You will learn, if pains you take.

Tuesday, December 12, 2017


Two classes of verb-forms illustrate in a striking way the fact that the same word may belong to different parts of speech; for they really belong to two different parts of speech at one and the same
time. These are the infinitive (which is both verb and noun) and the +participle+ (which is both verb and adjective).

Examples of the infinitive may be seen in the following sentences:

  To struggle was useless.

  To escape is impossible.

  To exercise regularly preserves the health.
To struggle is clearly a noun, for (1) it is the subject of the sentence, and (2) the noun effort or exertion might be put in the place of to struggle. Similarly, the noun escape might be
substituted for to escape; and, in the third sentence, regular exercise (a noun modified by an adjective) might be substituted for to exercise regularly.

But these three forms (to struggle,to escape, and to exercise) are also verbs, for they express action, and one of them (to exercise) is modified by an adverb (regularly). Such forms,
therefore, are noun-forms of the verb. They are classed with verbs, and are called infinitives.

The infinitive is a verb-form which partakes of the nature of a noun. It is commonly preceded by the preposition to, which is called the sign of the infinitive.

The infinitive without to is used in a great variety of verb-phrases.

  I shall go.

  John will win.

  Mary may recite.

  Jack can swim.

 The following sentence contains two participles:

  Shattered and slowly sinking, the frigate drifted out to sea.

Saturday, December 9, 2017


Key Words(Translate these words before reading):
  1. tureen
  2. sieve
  3. lemon
  4. boil
  5. drain
  6. substitute
  7. stir
  8. improve
  9. gentle
  10. drop
  11. through

Soak 2 cups of beans for twelve hours or more, and then drain them and put into 8 cups of cold water; add 3 whole cloves, 3 whole allspice, and 3 whole peppers, salt well and boil gently for two hours, rub through sieve, and reheat. Mix 1 tablespoon of thickening flour, and 1 tablespoon of butter and water, and stir into the soup at boiling point; season afresh and pour into a tureen in which are placed, neatly sliced, 1 hard-boiled egg and half a dozen seeded slices of lemon. This soup is improved by adding 1 wineglass of sherry, or one may substitute for it a few drops of Tomato Chutney or Worcestershire sauce.

Friday, December 8, 2017

One Word-Different Parts of Speech

  NOUN.       The calm lasted for three days.
  ADJECTIVE.  Calm words show quiet minds.
  VERB.       Calm your angry friend.

  Other examples are: iron, stone, paper, sugar, salt, bark, quiet,   black, light, head, wet, round, square, winter, spring.

  NOUN.          Wrong seldom prospers.
  ADJECTIVE.     You have taken the wrong road.
  ADVERB.        Edward often spells words wrong.
  VERB.          You wrong me by your suspicions.

  NOUN.          The outside of the castle is gloomy.
  ADJECTIVE.     We have an outside stateroom.
  ADVERB.        The messenger is waiting outside.
  PREPOSITION.   I shall ride outside the coach.

  ADJECTIVE.     That boat is a sloop.
  PRONOUN.       That is my uncle.
  CONJUNCTION.   You said that you would help me.

  ADJECTIVE.     Neither road leads to Utica.
  PRONOUN.       Neither of us arrived in time.
  CONJUNCTION.   Neither Tom nor I was late.

  PREPOSITION.   I am waiting for the train.
  CONJUNCTION.   You have plenty of time, for the train is late.

  INTERJECTION.  Hurrah! the battle is won.
  NOUN.          I heard a loud hurrah.
  VERB.          The enemy flees. Our men hurrah.

Thursday, December 7, 2017


  ADJECTIVES                        ADVERBS

  That is a fast boat.            The snow is melting fast.
  Draw a straight line.           The arrow flew straight.
  Early comers get good seats.    Tom awoke early.

 Some adverbs have the same form as the corresponding adjectives.

  You have guessed right.

  How fast the tide ebbs!

  The horse was sold cheap.

  Tired men sleep sound.

  Other examples are:--wrong, straight, early, late, quick, hard, far,  near, slow, high, low, loud, ill, well, deep, close, just, very, much, little.

Under this head come certain adverbs of degree used to modify adjectives.

  His eyes were dark blue. [Compare: very blue.]

  That silk is light yellow. [Compare: rather yellow.]

  These flowers are deep purple. [Compare: intensely purple.]

  The water was icy cold. [Compare: extremely cold.]

  That dark, light, etc., are adverbs in this use appears from the fact that they answer the question “How?” Thus,--“His eyes were blue.” “How blue?” “Dark blue.”


Tuesday, December 5, 2017


  NOUNS                                     VERBS

  Hear the wash of the tide.    Wash those windows.
  Give me a stamp.                 Stamp this envelope.
  It is the call of the sea.         You call me chief.

  Other examples are: act, address, ally, answer, boast, care, cause,   close, defeat, doubt, drop, heap, hope, mark, offer, pile, place,   rest, rule, sail, shape, sleep, spur, test, watch, wound.