Saturday, April 21, 2018

Punctuation: Comma

 A participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence must refer to the grammatical subject.

  Walking slowly down the road, he saw a woman accompanied by two children.

The word walking  refers to the subject of the sentence, not to the woman. If the writer wishes to make it refer to the woman, he must recast the sentence:

  He saw a woman accompanied by two children, walking slowly down the road.

Participial phrases preceded by a conjunction or by a preposition, nouns in apposition, adjectives, and adjective phrases come under the same rule if they begin the sentence.

  On arriving in Chicago, his friends met him at the station.

    When he arrived (or, On his arrival) in Chicago, his friends met him at the station.

  A soldier of proved valor, they entrusted him with the defence of the city.

    A soldier of proved valor, he was entrusted with the defence of the city.

  Young and inexperienced, the task seemed easy to me.

    Young and inexperienced, I thought the task easy.

  Without a friend to counsel him, the temptation proved irresistible.

    Without a friend to counsel him, he found the temptation irresistible.

Sentences violating this rule are often ludicrous.

  Being in a dilapidated condition, I was able to buy the house very cheap.

  Wondering irresolutely what to do next, the clock struck twelve.

Punctuation: Comma

 Do not break sentences in two.

In other words, do not use periods for commas.

  I met them on a Cunard liner several years ago. Coming home from Liverpool to New York.

  He was an interesting talker. A man who had traveled all over the world and lived in half a dozen countries.

In both these examples, the first period should be replaced by a comma,and the following word begun with a small letter.

It is permissible to make an emphatic word or expression serve the purpose of a sentence and to punctuate it accordingly:

  Again and again he called out. No reply.

The writer must, however, be certain that the emphasis is warranted, and that he will not be suspected of a mere blunder in syntax or in punctuation.

Punctuation: Comma,Semicolon

 Do not join independent clauses by a comma.
If two or more clauses, grammatically complete and not joined by a conjunction, are to form a single compound sentence, the proper mark of punctuation is a semicolon.
  Stevenson's romances are entertaining; they are full of exciting adventures.
  It is nearly half past five; we cannot reach town before dark.

It is of course equally correct to write the above as two sentences each, replacing the semicolons by periods.

  Stevenson's romances are entertaining. They are full of exciting adventures.
  It is nearly half past five. We cannot reach town before dark.

If a conjunction is inserted the proper mark is a comma.

  Stevenson's romances are entertaining, for they are full of exciting adventures.
  It is nearly half past five, and we cannot reach town before dark.

A comparison of the three forms given above will show clearly the advantage of the first. It is, at least in the examples given, better than the second form, because it suggests the close relationship between the two statements in a way that the second does not attempt, and better than the third, because briefer and therefore more forcible. Indeed it may be said that this simple method of indicating relationship between statements is one of the most useful devices of composition. The relationship, as above, is commonly one of cause or of consequence.

Note that if the second clause is preceded by an adverb, such as accordingly, besides, then, therefore or thus, and not by a conjunction, the semicolon is still required.

Two exceptions to the rule may be admitted. If the clauses are very short, and are alike in form, a comma is usually permissible:

  Man proposes, God disposes.

  The gate swung apart, the bridge fell, the portcullis was drawn up.

Note that in these examples the relation is not one of cause or consequence. Also in the colloquial form of expression:

  I hardly knew him, he was so changed,

a comma, not a semicolon, is required. But this form of expression is inappropriate in writing, except in the dialogue of a story or play, or perhaps in a familiar letter.

Friday, April 13, 2018

How many synonyms for judge do you know?

Good morning,my dear English learners!
Today we have a word "judge"(verb). How many synonyms do you know?
Basic level: consider, regard, appreciate
Advanced level: umpire, think, estimate, decide, arbitrator, condemn, decree, critic, appreciate, adjudicator, determine, arbiter, magistrate, arbitrate, justice, consider, mediate, referee, evaluate

Irregular verbs game

Good evening, my dear English learners!
Today I would like to share the game to practice irregular verbs:

Thursday, April 12, 2018

Irregular nouns

Good morning,my dear English learners!
Today we will work on irregular nouns:

Wednesday, April 11, 2018


Good morning, my dear English learners! Found a great link on coherence-cohesion: