Thursday, December 28, 2017

Vocabulary Task


allure
billow
indispensable
influx
frolicking

benediction
rim
huddle
ubiquitous
obsolete
pelt
pertain
pinwheel
solicitude
tailspin
peg
treacherous


1.     Therefore, anyone handling geographical names needs to have some basic linguistic knowledge, both in general terms and specifically _____ to the language situation of the area to the language situation of the area of survey.
2.     People from different professional backgrounds may be ______ to some kind of study of geographical names.
3.     Even if exhaustive linguistic knowledge is not required to be able to pracise this specific kind of applied toponyms, a basic understanding of the linguistic and historic context of the geographical names within the area of study is certain ______.
4.     Especially during the last century, the Nenets homeland has received an _____ of Russian settlers, who soon outnumbered the Nenets in their own provinces.
5.     So the starfish began to roll over and over on the sand like a ______, a hoop, or a wheel that has no rim, and only spokes to it.
6.     When breakfast was over they were joined by the sisters; and Elizabeth began to like them herself, when she saw how much affection and _____ they showed for Jane.
7.     The waves of the ocean grew into the big _____, and they dashed up on the beach with a booming, thundering sound.
8.     How the drops did come _____ down, harder and harder, but Uncle Wiggily didn’t get wet because of his toadstool umbrella.
9.     The sun rose upon a tranquil world, and beamed down upon the peaceful village like a _____.
10.Russia was seeking a $ 10 billion loan to avert the collapse of the ruble and the banking system so much of the advice below could become _____.
11.If the ruble goes into a _____, it’ll make sense to revert to the old habit of exchanging hard currency on a daily basis, but don’t expect a devalued ruble to boost your spending power.
12.As two thirds of the products consumed in Russia are imported, prices are _____ to western levels and can only get higher.
13.The icy glaze that encrusted the metal rungs was _____.
14.He looked like a _____ polar bear in his frost-whitened suit.
15.For almost 500 years, the Mercator projection has been the norm for maps of the world, _____ in atlases and on school walls.
16.He glanced down at the _____ on the ground that was Jim.
17.To by stared out of the window of his room on the _____ of the space station, wondering what he should do.

Wednesday, December 27, 2017

Vegetarian dish: BROWN BEAN SOUP

Take 1 cup of brown beans and 1/2 cup of German lentils, wash well and put in a saucepan with plenty of cold water, 2 or 3 chopped onions, 1 stalk of celery, 1 bay leaf, and simmer together for three hours, then strain. If a thin soup is wanted, do not press any of the pulp through the strainer, but if it is liked somewhat thick, do so. Return the strained soup to the saucepan and thicken with
1 teaspoon of thickening flour. This is now delicious soup stock, and can be served plain, or varied by adding peas, diced carrots, spaghetti, a few drops of sauce, a little sherry, tomato catsup, or curry powder. Season well with salt and pepper before serving.






What new words did you find in the text?

Monday, December 25, 2017

Vegetarian dish: BELGIAN SOUP

Take 4 cups of diced turnips and put them in a saucepan with 2 tablespoons of butter, and stir for ten minutes over a slow fire; then stir in 2 cups of water, 2 teaspoons of brown sugar, and plenty
of pepper and salt, and let simmer for another ten minutes; add 2 cups of milk thickened with 1 tablespoon of flour, let boil up, stirring constantly, and serve with croutons.

Key words
simmer
turnip
dice
stir
boil
plenty
minute
constant
serve

Saturday, December 23, 2017

A MYSTERY

    I put my coat and furs and mittens on, to go
    With my cunning Christmas sled, out to see the pretty snow.

    I made some little balls, and they looked as white and nice--
    I tried how one would taste, but it was just as cold as ice.

    I took some to the kitchen then, because I thought, you see,
    I’d bake them just like apples--they’d be good with cream and tea.

    I didn’t say a single word about it to the cook,
    When I put them in the oven, but when she gave a look,

    She stared, and held her hands up, and said: “For pity’s sake!
    Who put this water in here, and spoiled my ginger cake?”

    I couldn’t tell. It wasn’t I; but I would like to know,
    Where did my pretty apples, that I was baking, go?
Questions: 
  1. What became of snow balls?

Friday, December 22, 2017

Definiton Revision

THE SENTENCE

1. Language is thought expressed in words.

2. To express thought words are combined into sentences.

3. A sentence is a group of words which expresses a complete thought.

4. Sentences may be declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory.

(1) A declarative sentence declares or asserts something as a fact.

(2) An interrogative sentence asks a question.

(3) An imperative sentence expresses a command or a request.

(4) An exclamatory sentence expresses surprise, grief, or some other emotion in the form of an exclamation or cry.

A declarative, an interrogative, or an imperative sentence may also be exclamatory.


SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

5. Every sentence consists of a subject and a predicate.

The subject of a sentence designates the person, place, or thing that is spoken of; the predicate is that which is said of the subject.

6. The simple subject of a sentence is a noun or pronoun.

The simple predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb-phrase.

7. The simple subject, with such words as explain or complete its
meaning, forms the complete subject.

The simple predicate, with such words as explain or complete its
meaning, forms the complete predicate.

8. A compound subject or predicate consists of two or more simple subjects or predicates, joined, when necessary, by conjunctions.

Either the subject or the predicate, or both, may be compound.


THE PARTS OF SPEECH

9. In accordance with their use in the sentence, words are divided into eight classes called parts of speech,--namely, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and
interjections.

(1) A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.

(2) A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. It designates a person, place, or thing without naming it.

Nouns and pronouns are called substantives.

The substantive to which a pronoun refers is called its antecedent.

(3) An adjective is a word which describes or limits a substantive.

This it usually does by indicating some quality.

An adjective is said to belong to the substantive which it describes or
limits.

An adjective which describes is called a descriptive adjective; one
which points out or designates is called a definitive adjective.

(4) A verb is a word which can assert something (usually an action) concerning a person, place, or thing.

Some verbs express state or condition rather than action.

A group of words that is used as a verb is called a verb-phrase.

Certain verbs, when used to make verb-phrases, are called auxiliary (that is, “aiding”) verbs, because they help other verbs to express action or state of some particular kind.
Is (in its various forms) and several other verbs may be used to frame sentences in which some word or words in the predicate describe or define the subject. In such sentences, is and other verbs that are used for the same purpose are called copulative (that is, “joining”) verbs.

(5) An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

A word or group of words that changes or modifies the meaning of another word is called a modifier.

Adjectives and adverbs are both modifiers.

(6) A preposition is a word placed before a substantive to show its relation to some other word in the sentence.

The substantive which follows a preposition is called its object.

(7) A conjunction connects words or groups of words.

(8) An interjection is a cry or other exclamatory sound expressing surprise, anger, pleasure, or some other emotion or feeling.

10. The meaning of a word in the sentence determines to what part of speech it belongs.

The same word may be sometimes one part of speech, sometimes another.

11. The infinitive is a verb-form which partakes of the nature of a noun. It is commonly preceded by the preposition to, which is called the sign of the infinitive.

12. The participle is a verb-form which has no subject, but which partakes of the nature of an adjective and expresses action or state in such a way as to describe or limit a substantive.

A participle is said to belong to the substantive which it describes or limits.

The chief classes of participles are present participles and past participles, so called from the time which they denote.


SUBSTITUTES FOR THE PARTS OF SPEECH


PHRASES

13. A group of connected words, not containing a subject and a predicate, is called a phrase.

A phrase is often equivalent to a part of speech.

(1) A phrase used as a noun is called a noun-phrase.

(2) A phrase used as a verb is called a verb-phrase.

(3) A phrase used as an adjective is called an adjective phrase.

(4) A phrase used as an adverb is called an adverbial phrase.

14. Adjective or adverbial phrases consisting of a preposition and its object, with or without other words, may be called prepositional phrases.


CLAUSES

15. A clause is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and that contains a subject and a predicate.

16. A clause used as a part of speech is called a subordinate clause.
All other clauses are said to be independent.

17. Clauses of the same order or rank are said to be coordinate.

18. Sentences may be simple, compound, or complex.

(1) A simple sentence has but one subject and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound.

(2) A compound sentence consists of two or more independent coordinate clauses, which may or may not be joined by conjunctions.

(3) A complex sentence consists of two or more clauses, one of which is independent and the rest subordinate.

A compound sentence in which one or more of the coordinate clauses are complex is called a compound complex sentence.

19. Subordinate clauses, like phrases, are used as parts of speech.
They serve as substitutes for nouns, for adjectives, or for adverbs.

(1) A subordinate clause that is used as a noun is called a noun (or substantive) clause.

(2) A subordinate clause that modifies a substantive is called an adjective clause.

(3) A subordinate clause that serves as an adverbial modifier is called an adverbial clause.


Thursday, December 21, 2017

Clauses

CLAUSES AS PARTS OF SPEECH

Subordinate clauses, like phrases, are used as parts of speech. They serve as substitutes for nouns, for adjectives, or for adverbs.

1. A subordinate clause that is used as a noun is called a noun (or substantive) clause.

2. A subordinate clause that modifies a substantive is called an adjective clause.

3. A subordinate clause that serves as an adverbial modifier is called an adverbial clause. I. NOUN (OR SUBSTANTIVE) CLAUSES.

  {Success | That we should succeed in this plan} is improbable.

The thought in these two sentences is the same, but in the second it is more fully expressed. In the first sentence, the subject is the noun success; in the second, the subject is the noun clause, that
we should succeed in this plan
. This clause is introduced by the conjunction that; the simple subject of the clause is the pronoun we, and the simple predicate is the verb-phrase should succeed. The first sentence is simple; the second is complex.

Substantive clauses are often introduced by the conjunction that.

II. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES. The following sentences illustrate the use of (1) an adjective, (2) an adjective phrase, (3) an adjective clause, as a modifier of the subject noun.

  {An honorable man | A man of honor | A man who values his   honor} will not lie.

  {A seasonable word | A word in season | A word that is spoken at   the right moment} may save a soul.

  {My native land | The land of my birth | The land where I was   born} lies far across the sea.

The first two sentences in each group are simple, the third is complex.

III. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES. The following sentences illustrate the use of (1) an adverb, (2) an adverbial phrase, (3) an adverbial clause, as a modifier of the predicate verb (or verb-phrase).

  The lightning struck {here. | on this spot. | where we stand.}

  Mr. Andrews lives {near. | in this neighborhood. | where you see   that elm.}

  The game began {punctually. | on the stroke of one. | when the   clock struck.}

  The banker will make the loan {conditionally. | on one condition.   | if you endorse my note.}

The first two sentences in each group are simple, the third is complex.

 Adjective clauses may be introduced (1) by the pronouns who, which, and that, or (2) by adverbs like where, whence, whither, when.

Adverbial clauses may be introduced (1) by the adverbs where, whither, whence, when, while, before, after, until, how, as, or (2) by the conjunctions because, though, although, if, that (in order that, so that), lest, etc.

 

Wednesday, December 20, 2017

Simple +Compound Sentences

 SIMPLE SENTENCES

  Iron rusts.

  George V is king.

  Dogs, foxes, and hares are quadrupeds. [Compound subject.]

  The defendant rose and addressed the court. [Compound predicate.]

  Merton and his men crossed the bridge and scaled the wall. [Both   subject and predicate are compound.]


 COMPOUND SENTENCES

  Shakspere was born in 1564; he died in 1616. [Two coordinate clauses;   no conjunction.]

  A rifle cracked, and the wolf fell dead. [Two clauses joined by the  conjunction and.]

  You must hurry, or we shall lose the train. [Two clauses joined by or.]

  James Watt did not invent the steam engine, but he greatly improved it. [Two clauses joined by but.]

  Either you have neglected to write or your letter has failed to reach me. [Two clauses joined by either ... or.]
The following conjunctions may be used to join coordinate clauses: and (both ... and), or (either ... or), nor (neither ... nor), but, for.

Sunday, December 17, 2017

CLAUSES--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES

Phrases must be carefully distinguished from clauses. The difference is that a clause contains a subject and a predicate and a phrase does not.
A clause is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and that contains a subject and a predicate.
  The lightning flashed | and | the thunder roared.
  The train started | when the bell rang.

Each of these sentences contains two clauses; but the relation between the clauses in the first sentence is very different from that between the clauses in the second.

In the first example, each of the two clauses makes a separate and distinct statement, and might stand by itself as a simple sentence,--that is, as a sentence having but one subject and one predicate. These clauses are joined by the conjunction and, which is not a part of either. No doubt the speaker feels that there is some relation in thought between the two statements, or he would not have put them together as clauses in the same sentence. But there is nothing in the form of expression to show what that relation is. In other words, the two clauses are grammatically independent, for neither of
them modifies (or affects the meaning of) the other. The clauses are therefore said to be co├Ârdinate,--that is, of the same “order” or rank, and the sentence is called compound.
In the second example, on the contrary, the relation between the two clauses is indicated with precision. One clause (the train started) makes the main statement,--it expresses the chief fact. Hence it is called the main (or principal) clause. The other clause (when the bell rang) is added because the speaker wishes to modify the main verb (started) by defining the time of the action. This clause,
then, is used as a part of speech. Its function is the same as that of an adverb (promptly) or an adverbial phrase (on the stroke of the bell). For this purpose alone it exists, and not as an independent
statement. Hence it is called a dependent (or subordinate) clause, because it depends (that is, “hangs”) upon the main clause, and so occupies a lower or “subordinate” rank in the sentence. When
thus constructed, a sentence is said to be complex.

 An ordinary compound sentence is made by joining two or more simple sentences, each of which thus becomes an independent coordinate clause.

In the same way we may join two or more complex sentences, using them as clauses to make one compound sentence:

  The train started when the bell rang, | and | Tom watched until the   last car disappeared.

This sentence is manifestly compound, for it consists of two coordinate clauses (the train started when the bell rang; Tom watched until the last car disappeared) joined by and. Each of these
two clauses is itself complex, for each could stand by itself as a complex sentence.

Similarly, a complex and a simple sentence may be joined as coordinate clauses to make a compound sentence.

  The train started when the bell rang, | and | Tom gazed after it in   despair.

Such a sentence, which is compound in its structure, but in which one or more of the coordinate clauses are complex, is called a compound complex sentence.

A clause is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and that contains a subject and a predicate.
A clause used as a part of speech is called a subordinate clause. All other clauses are said to be independent.

Clauses of the same order or rank are said to be coordinate.
Sentences may be simple, compound, or complex.

1. A simple sentence has but one subject and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound.

2. A compound sentence consists of two or more independent coordinate clauses, which may or may not be joined by conjunctions.

3. A complex sentence consists of two or more clauses, one of which is independent and the rest subordinate.

A compound sentence in which one or more of the coordinate clauses are complex is called a compound complex sentence.

Friday, December 15, 2017

Reading: Seven days make a week

   Key words:
  • mend
  • iron
  • sight
  • fair
  • receive
  • right
  •  
  •    On Monday, when the weather is fair,
        I always wash the clothes.
        On Tuesday I can iron them,
        Even if it rains and snows.
        On Wednesday I do all the mending,
        I like the mending too.
        On Thursday I receive my friends;
        I have nothing else to do.
        Friday is the time to sweep,
        To dust, and set things right.
        On Saturday I always cook,
        Then put all work from sight.
        And Sunday is the day of rest;
        I go to church dressed in my best.



















  
   

Thursday, December 14, 2017

PHRASES

A group of words may take the place of a part of speech

 The Father of Water is the Mississippi.

  A girl with blue eyes stood at the window.

  You are looking well.

  The Father of Waters is used as a noun, since it names something.

  With blue eyes takes the place of an adjective (blue-eyed), and   modifies girl.

  At the window indicates, as an adverb might, where the girl stood, and modifies stood.

  Are looking could be replaced by the verb look.

A group of connected words, not containing a subject and a predicate, is called a phrase.

A phrase is often equivalent to a part of speech.

1. A phrase used as a noun is called a noun-phrase.

2. A phrase used as a verb is called a verb-phrase.

3. A phrase used as an adjective is called an adjective phrase.

4. A phrase used as an adverb is called an adverbial phrase.

  In the examples in The Father of Waters is a noun-phrase; with blue eyes, an adjective phrase; at the window, an adverbial phrase; are looking, a verb-phrase.

Many adjective and adverbial phrases consist of a preposition and its object, with or without other words.

  Your umbrella is in the corner.

  He has a heart of oak.

  A cup with a broken handle stood on the shelf.

  My house of cards fell to the floor in a heap.

Adjective or adverbial phrases consisting of a preposition and its object, with or without other words, may be called prepositional phrases.

Wednesday, December 13, 2017

Reading: Poem

   Read the poem
   Sixty seconds make a minute,
    Something sure you can learn in it;
    Sixty minutes make an hour,
    Work with all your might and power;
    Twenty-four hours make a day,
    Time enough for work and play.
    Seven days a week will make;
    You will learn, if pains you take.

Tuesday, December 12, 2017

INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES

Two classes of verb-forms illustrate in a striking way the fact that the same word may belong to different parts of speech; for they really belong to two different parts of speech at one and the same
time. These are the infinitive (which is both verb and noun) and the +participle+ (which is both verb and adjective).

Examples of the infinitive may be seen in the following sentences:

  To struggle was useless.

  To escape is impossible.

  To exercise regularly preserves the health.
To struggle is clearly a noun, for (1) it is the subject of the sentence, and (2) the noun effort or exertion might be put in the place of to struggle. Similarly, the noun escape might be
substituted for to escape; and, in the third sentence, regular exercise (a noun modified by an adjective) might be substituted for to exercise regularly.

But these three forms (to struggle,to escape, and to exercise) are also verbs, for they express action, and one of them (to exercise) is modified by an adverb (regularly). Such forms,
therefore, are noun-forms of the verb. They are classed with verbs, and are called infinitives.

The infinitive is a verb-form which partakes of the nature of a noun. It is commonly preceded by the preposition to, which is called the sign of the infinitive.

The infinitive without to is used in a great variety of verb-phrases.

  I shall go.

  John will win.

  Mary may recite.

  Jack can swim.

 The following sentence contains two participles:

  Shattered and slowly sinking, the frigate drifted out to sea.

Saturday, December 9, 2017

Vegetarian dish: BLACK BEAN SOUP

Key Words(Translate these words before reading):
  1. tureen
  2. sieve
  3. lemon
  4. boil
  5. drain
  6. substitute
  7. stir
  8. improve
  9. gentle
  10. drop
  11. through


Soak 2 cups of beans for twelve hours or more, and then drain them and put into 8 cups of cold water; add 3 whole cloves, 3 whole allspice, and 3 whole peppers, salt well and boil gently for two hours, rub through sieve, and reheat. Mix 1 tablespoon of thickening flour, and 1 tablespoon of butter and water, and stir into the soup at boiling point; season afresh and pour into a tureen in which are placed, neatly sliced, 1 hard-boiled egg and half a dozen seeded slices of lemon. This soup is improved by adding 1 wineglass of sherry, or one may substitute for it a few drops of Tomato Chutney or Worcestershire sauce.

Friday, December 8, 2017

One Word-Different Parts of Speech


  NOUN.       The calm lasted for three days.
  ADJECTIVE.  Calm words show quiet minds.
  VERB.       Calm your angry friend.

  Other examples are: iron, stone, paper, sugar, salt, bark, quiet,   black, light, head, wet, round, square, winter, spring.

  NOUN.          Wrong seldom prospers.
  ADJECTIVE.     You have taken the wrong road.
  ADVERB.        Edward often spells words wrong.
  VERB.          You wrong me by your suspicions.

  NOUN.          The outside of the castle is gloomy.
  ADJECTIVE.     We have an outside stateroom.
  ADVERB.        The messenger is waiting outside.
  PREPOSITION.   I shall ride outside the coach.

  ADJECTIVE.     That boat is a sloop.
  PRONOUN.       That is my uncle.
  CONJUNCTION.   You said that you would help me.

  ADJECTIVE.     Neither road leads to Utica.
  PRONOUN.       Neither of us arrived in time.
  CONJUNCTION.   Neither Tom nor I was late.

  PREPOSITION.   I am waiting for the train.
  CONJUNCTION.   You have plenty of time, for the train is late.

  INTERJECTION.  Hurrah! the battle is won.
  NOUN.          I heard a loud hurrah.
  VERB.          The enemy flees. Our men hurrah.

Thursday, December 7, 2017

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

  ADJECTIVES                        ADVERBS

  That is a fast boat.            The snow is melting fast.
  Draw a straight line.           The arrow flew straight.
  Early comers get good seats.    Tom awoke early.

 Some adverbs have the same form as the corresponding adjectives.

  You have guessed right.

  How fast the tide ebbs!

  The horse was sold cheap.

  Tired men sleep sound.

  Other examples are:--wrong, straight, early, late, quick, hard, far,  near, slow, high, low, loud, ill, well, deep, close, just, very, much, little.

Under this head come certain adverbs of degree used to modify adjectives.

  His eyes were dark blue. [Compare: very blue.]

  That silk is light yellow. [Compare: rather yellow.]

  These flowers are deep purple. [Compare: intensely purple.]

  The water was icy cold. [Compare: extremely cold.]

  That dark, light, etc., are adverbs in this use appears from the fact that they answer the question “How?” Thus,--“His eyes were blue.” “How blue?” “Dark blue.”

 

Tuesday, December 5, 2017

NOUNS AND VERBS

  NOUNS                                     VERBS

  Hear the wash of the tide.    Wash those windows.
  Give me a stamp.                 Stamp this envelope.
  It is the call of the sea.         You call me chief.

  Other examples are: act, address, ally, answer, boast, care, cause,   close, defeat, doubt, drop, heap, hope, mark, offer, pile, place,   rest, rule, sail, shape, sleep, spur, test, watch, wound.

Sunday, December 3, 2017

THE SENTENCE

1.A sentence is a group of words which expresses a complete thought.
  Fire burns.

  Wolves howl.

  Rain is falling.

  Charles is courageous.

  Patient effort removes mountains.

  London is the largest city in the world.

 
Some of these sentences are short, expressing a very simple thought; others are comparatively long, because the thought is more complicated and therefore requires more words for its expression. But every one of them, whether short or long, is complete in itself. It comes to a definite end, and is followed by a full pause.

2. Every sentence, whether short or long, consists of two parts,--a subject and a predicate.
The subject of a sentence designates the person, place, or thing that is spoken of; the predicate is that which is said of the subject.

Either the subject or the predicate may consist of a single word or of a number of words. But neither the subject by itself nor the predicate by itself, however extended, is a sentence. The mere mention of a thing (fire) does not express a complete thought. Neither does a mere assertion (burns), if we neglect to mention the person or thing about which the assertion is made. Thus it appears that both a subject and a predicate are necessary to make a sentence.

3.Sentences may be declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory.

1. A declarative sentence declares or asserts something as a fact.
  Dickens wrote “David Copperfield.”

  The army approached the city.

2. An interrogative sentence asks a question.

  Who is that officer?

  Does Arthur Moore live here?

3. An imperative sentence expresses a command or a request.
  Open the window.

  Pronounce the vowels more distinctly.

4. An exclamatory sentence expresses surprise, grief, or some other emotion in the form of an exclamation or cry.

  How calm the sea is!

  What a noise the engine makes!

A declarative, an interrogative, or an imperative sentence is also exclamatory, if it is uttered in an intense or excited tone of voice.
4. In imperative sentences, the subject (you) is almost always omitted, because it is understood by both speaker and hearer without being expressed.  Such omitted words, which are present (in idea) to the minds of   both speaker and hearer, are said to be “understood.” Thus, in “Open   the window,” the subject is “you (understood).” If expressed, the   subject would be emphatic: as,--“You open the window.”
5. The subject of a sentence commonly precedes the predicate, but sometimes the predicate precedes.
  Here comes Tom.

  Next came Edward.

  Over went the carriage.

A sentence in which the predicate precedes the subject is said to be in the inverted order. This order is especially common in interrogative sentences.
  Where is your boat?

  When was your last birthday?

 

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Why the Chipmunk Has Black Stripes

Rewrite this story in five sentences.

WHY THE CHIPMUNK HAS BLACK STRIPES

 Once upon a time the porcupine was made chief of the animals. He  called all the animals together for a great council.
 The animals seated themselves around a big fire. The porcupine said,  “We have a great question to decide. It is this: ‘Shall we have  daylight all the time or night all the time?’"
 All the animals began to talk at once. Some wanted one thing, some  another. The bear wanted it to be dark all the time. In his big, deep  voice he said, “Always night! Always night!”
 The little chipmunk, in a loud, high voice, said, “Day will come! Day  will come!”
 The council was held at night. While the animals were talking the sun  rose. The bear and the other night animals were angry. The chipmunk  saw the light coming, and started to run away. The angry bear ran  after him and struck him on the back with his paw.  Since then, the chipmunk has always had black stripes on his back, and  daylight always follows night.

   Fill the blank spaces:

 The chipmunk ---- black stripes.

 The porcupine said, “We ---- a question to decide.”

 The chipmunk said, “Day ---- come.”

 The bear ---- it to be dark.

 The council ---- held at night.

 The chipmunk ---- the light coming, and ---- to run away.

 The angry bear ---- him with his paw.

Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Reading Comprehension

Read the poem:
      Blow, wind, blow!
      And go, mill, go!
    That the miller may grind his corn;
      That the baker may take it,
      And into rolls make it,
    And send us some hot in the morn.

Write answers to the following, in complete sentences(in comment section below):
 1.What does the wind do?

 2.What does the wind do to the mill?

 3.What does the miller do to the corn?

 4.What does the baker do to the meal?

 5.becomes of the rolls?

Sunday, November 26, 2017

Fable: The Fox and the Grapes

One day a hungry fox started out to find something to eat. He saw some grapes, near the top of a tall grapevine. The fox tried to jump up and get the grapes but he could not reach them. He tried again and again, but it was of no use. As he walked away, he said, “I do not care for the grapes. They are sour.”

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Vocabulary Task


dampness
brood
intrepid
butterscotch
daredevil
lonesome
lancer
mercantile
formidable
gregarious
tithe
courtesy
umbrage
vicissitude
valediction


1.     At first, he was quite _____, as he walked along the beach looking for a place to sleep, but then he looked up at the sky shining in the sky above him, and he saw the moon coming up from behind the clouds, and it was shining on the ocean waves, making them look like silver, and it wasn’t quite so dark then.
2.     I do wish I had some place where I could go in out of ______.
3.     They saw the _____ from the steamers; they saw the unending crowd of doll-like person’s thrown up out of the ground by the new Tube Station at the south end of Hammersmith Bridge.
4.     Here’s the chance to see the classic moment when Colin Firth, playing the ______ Mr Darcy takes a plunge in the lake.
5.     Time has not granted him to embody in a permanent shape a ______ of his personal experiences and strange adventures in the three quarters of the globe.
6.     He obtained a commission in a squadron of ______ then attached to the division of General Diego Leon, and was actively engaged in several of the most important combats of the campaign.
7.     Preparing himself by previous excursions on foot, in North Africa and Algeria, he sailed from Liverpool early in December last for Ichaboe where we have already ______ establishments.
8.     The _____ traveler had received from the agents of these establishments such favourable accounts of the nations towards the interior, as also of the nature of the climate, that he has the most sanguine hopes.
9.     Then, pour strawberry, _____, and pineapple syrup over the scoops of icecream.
10.I also wish to express my gratitude to The Wide World Magazine for the ______ of permitting me to publish the narrative from its pages.
11.The trapeze artists, tight rope-walkers and ______ riders astonished them.
12.Despite his _____ intellectual abilities, he spent most of his time hanging out, staying up late, and missing classes by sleeping until noon.
13.Consider also data from an ongoing study of eighty-one _____ and salutatorians from the 1981 class in Illinois high schools.
14.It tells you nothing about how they react to the ______ of life.
15.Four-year-old Judy might seem a wallflower among her more _____ playmates.
16.I took _____ at the word “supposed”.