Thursday, December 14, 2017

PHRASES

A group of words may take the place of a part of speech

 The Father of Water is the Mississippi.

  A girl with blue eyes stood at the window.

  You are looking well.

  The Father of Waters is used as a noun, since it names something.

  With blue eyes takes the place of an adjective (blue-eyed), and   modifies girl.

  At the window indicates, as an adverb might, where the girl stood, and modifies stood.

  Are looking could be replaced by the verb look.

A group of connected words, not containing a subject and a predicate, is called a phrase.

A phrase is often equivalent to a part of speech.

1. A phrase used as a noun is called a noun-phrase.

2. A phrase used as a verb is called a verb-phrase.

3. A phrase used as an adjective is called an adjective phrase.

4. A phrase used as an adverb is called an adverbial phrase.

  In the examples in The Father of Waters is a noun-phrase; with blue eyes, an adjective phrase; at the window, an adverbial phrase; are looking, a verb-phrase.

Many adjective and adverbial phrases consist of a preposition and its object, with or without other words.

  Your umbrella is in the corner.

  He has a heart of oak.

  A cup with a broken handle stood on the shelf.

  My house of cards fell to the floor in a heap.

Adjective or adverbial phrases consisting of a preposition and its object, with or without other words, may be called prepositional phrases.

Wednesday, December 13, 2017

Reading: Poem

   Read the poem
   Sixty seconds make a minute,
    Something sure you can learn in it;
    Sixty minutes make an hour,
    Work with all your might and power;
    Twenty-four hours make a day,
    Time enough for work and play.
    Seven days a week will make;
    You will learn, if pains you take.

Tuesday, December 12, 2017

INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES

Two classes of verb-forms illustrate in a striking way the fact that the same word may belong to different parts of speech; for they really belong to two different parts of speech at one and the same
time. These are the infinitive (which is both verb and noun) and the +participle+ (which is both verb and adjective).

Examples of the infinitive may be seen in the following sentences:

  To struggle was useless.

  To escape is impossible.

  To exercise regularly preserves the health.
To struggle is clearly a noun, for (1) it is the subject of the sentence, and (2) the noun effort or exertion might be put in the place of to struggle. Similarly, the noun escape might be
substituted for to escape; and, in the third sentence, regular exercise (a noun modified by an adjective) might be substituted for to exercise regularly.

But these three forms (to struggle,to escape, and to exercise) are also verbs, for they express action, and one of them (to exercise) is modified by an adverb (regularly). Such forms,
therefore, are noun-forms of the verb. They are classed with verbs, and are called infinitives.

The infinitive is a verb-form which partakes of the nature of a noun. It is commonly preceded by the preposition to, which is called the sign of the infinitive.

The infinitive without to is used in a great variety of verb-phrases.

  I shall go.

  John will win.

  Mary may recite.

  Jack can swim.

 The following sentence contains two participles:

  Shattered and slowly sinking, the frigate drifted out to sea.

Saturday, December 9, 2017

Reading: BLACK BEAN SOUP

Key Words(Translate these words before reading):
  1. tureen
  2. sieve
  3. lemon
  4. boil
  5. drain
  6. substitute
  7. stir
  8. improve
  9. gentle
  10. drop
  11. through


Soak 2 cups of beans for twelve hours or more, and then drain them and put into 8 cups of cold water; add 3 whole cloves, 3 whole allspice, and 3 whole peppers, salt well and boil gently for two hours, rub through sieve, and reheat. Mix 1 tablespoon of thickening flour, and 1 tablespoon of butter and water, and stir into the soup at boiling point; season afresh and pour into a tureen in which are placed, neatly sliced, 1 hard-boiled egg and half a dozen seeded slices of lemon. This soup is improved by adding 1 wineglass of sherry, or one may substitute for it a few drops of Tomato Chutney or Worcestershire sauce.

Friday, December 8, 2017

One Word-Different Parts of Speech


  NOUN.       The calm lasted for three days.
  ADJECTIVE.  Calm words show quiet minds.
  VERB.       Calm your angry friend.

  Other examples are: iron, stone, paper, sugar, salt, bark, quiet,   black, light, head, wet, round, square, winter, spring.

  NOUN.          Wrong seldom prospers.
  ADJECTIVE.     You have taken the wrong road.
  ADVERB.        Edward often spells words wrong.
  VERB.          You wrong me by your suspicions.

  NOUN.          The outside of the castle is gloomy.
  ADJECTIVE.     We have an outside stateroom.
  ADVERB.        The messenger is waiting outside.
  PREPOSITION.   I shall ride outside the coach.

  ADJECTIVE.     That boat is a sloop.
  PRONOUN.       That is my uncle.
  CONJUNCTION.   You said that you would help me.

  ADJECTIVE.     Neither road leads to Utica.
  PRONOUN.       Neither of us arrived in time.
  CONJUNCTION.   Neither Tom nor I was late.

  PREPOSITION.   I am waiting for the train.
  CONJUNCTION.   You have plenty of time, for the train is late.

  INTERJECTION.  Hurrah! the battle is won.
  NOUN.          I heard a loud hurrah.
  VERB.          The enemy flees. Our men hurrah.

Thursday, December 7, 2017

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

  ADJECTIVES                        ADVERBS

  That is a fast boat.            The snow is melting fast.
  Draw a straight line.           The arrow flew straight.
  Early comers get good seats.    Tom awoke early.

 Some adverbs have the same form as the corresponding adjectives.

  You have guessed right.

  How fast the tide ebbs!

  The horse was sold cheap.

  Tired men sleep sound.

  Other examples are:--wrong, straight, early, late, quick, hard, far,  near, slow, high, low, loud, ill, well, deep, close, just, very, much, little.

Under this head come certain adverbs of degree used to modify adjectives.

  His eyes were dark blue. [Compare: very blue.]

  That silk is light yellow. [Compare: rather yellow.]

  These flowers are deep purple. [Compare: intensely purple.]

  The water was icy cold. [Compare: extremely cold.]

  That dark, light, etc., are adverbs in this use appears from the fact that they answer the question “How?” Thus,--“His eyes were blue.” “How blue?” “Dark blue.”

 

Tuesday, December 5, 2017

NOUNS AND VERBS

  NOUNS                                     VERBS

  Hear the wash of the tide.    Wash those windows.
  Give me a stamp.                 Stamp this envelope.
  It is the call of the sea.         You call me chief.

  Other examples are: act, address, ally, answer, boast, care, cause,   close, defeat, doubt, drop, heap, hope, mark, offer, pile, place,   rest, rule, sail, shape, sleep, spur, test, watch, wound.

Sunday, December 3, 2017

THE SENTENCE

1.A sentence is a group of words which expresses a complete thought.
  Fire burns.

  Wolves howl.

  Rain is falling.

  Charles is courageous.

  Patient effort removes mountains.

  London is the largest city in the world.

 
Some of these sentences are short, expressing a very simple thought; others are comparatively long, because the thought is more complicated and therefore requires more words for its expression. But every one of them, whether short or long, is complete in itself. It comes to a definite end, and is followed by a full pause.

2. Every sentence, whether short or long, consists of two parts,--a subject and a predicate.
The subject of a sentence designates the person, place, or thing that is spoken of; the predicate is that which is said of the subject.

Either the subject or the predicate may consist of a single word or of a number of words. But neither the subject by itself nor the predicate by itself, however extended, is a sentence. The mere mention of a thing (fire) does not express a complete thought. Neither does a mere assertion (burns), if we neglect to mention the person or thing about which the assertion is made. Thus it appears that both a subject and a predicate are necessary to make a sentence.

3.Sentences may be declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory.

1. A declarative sentence declares or asserts something as a fact.
  Dickens wrote “David Copperfield.”

  The army approached the city.

2. An interrogative sentence asks a question.

  Who is that officer?

  Does Arthur Moore live here?

3. An imperative sentence expresses a command or a request.
  Open the window.

  Pronounce the vowels more distinctly.

4. An exclamatory sentence expresses surprise, grief, or some other emotion in the form of an exclamation or cry.

  How calm the sea is!

  What a noise the engine makes!

A declarative, an interrogative, or an imperative sentence is also exclamatory, if it is uttered in an intense or excited tone of voice.
4. In imperative sentences, the subject (you) is almost always omitted, because it is understood by both speaker and hearer without being expressed.  Such omitted words, which are present (in idea) to the minds of   both speaker and hearer, are said to be “understood.” Thus, in “Open   the window,” the subject is “you (understood).” If expressed, the   subject would be emphatic: as,--“You open the window.”
5. The subject of a sentence commonly precedes the predicate, but sometimes the predicate precedes.
  Here comes Tom.

  Next came Edward.

  Over went the carriage.

A sentence in which the predicate precedes the subject is said to be in the inverted order. This order is especially common in interrogative sentences.
  Where is your boat?

  When was your last birthday?

 

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Why the Chipmunk Has Black Stripes

Rewrite this story in five sentences.

WHY THE CHIPMUNK HAS BLACK STRIPES

 Once upon a time the porcupine was made chief of the animals. He  called all the animals together for a great council.
 The animals seated themselves around a big fire. The porcupine said,  “We have a great question to decide. It is this: ‘Shall we have  daylight all the time or night all the time?’"
 All the animals began to talk at once. Some wanted one thing, some  another. The bear wanted it to be dark all the time. In his big, deep  voice he said, “Always night! Always night!”
 The little chipmunk, in a loud, high voice, said, “Day will come! Day  will come!”
 The council was held at night. While the animals were talking the sun  rose. The bear and the other night animals were angry. The chipmunk  saw the light coming, and started to run away. The angry bear ran  after him and struck him on the back with his paw.  Since then, the chipmunk has always had black stripes on his back, and  daylight always follows night.

   Fill the blank spaces:

 The chipmunk ---- black stripes.

 The porcupine said, “We ---- a question to decide.”

 The chipmunk said, “Day ---- come.”

 The bear ---- it to be dark.

 The council ---- held at night.

 The chipmunk ---- the light coming, and ---- to run away.

 The angry bear ---- him with his paw.

Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Reading Comprehension

Read the poem:
      Blow, wind, blow!
      And go, mill, go!
    That the miller may grind his corn;
      That the baker may take it,
      And into rolls make it,
    And send us some hot in the morn.

Write answers to the following, in complete sentences(in comment section below):
 1.What does the wind do?

 2.What does the wind do to the mill?

 3.What does the miller do to the corn?

 4.What does the baker do to the meal?

 5.becomes of the rolls?

Sunday, November 26, 2017

Fable: The Fox and the Grapes

One day a hungry fox started out to find something to eat. He saw some grapes, near the top of a tall grapevine. The fox tried to jump up and get the grapes but he could not reach them. He tried again and again, but it was of no use. As he walked away, he said, “I do not care for the grapes. They are sour.”

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Vocabulary Task


dampness
brood
intrepid
butterscotch
daredevil
lonesome
lancer
mercantile
formidable
gregarious
tithe
courtesy
umbrage
vicissitude
valediction


1.     At first, he was quite _____, as he walked along the beach looking for a place to sleep, but then he looked up at the sky shining in the sky above him, and he saw the moon coming up from behind the clouds, and it was shining on the ocean waves, making them look like silver, and it wasn’t quite so dark then.
2.     I do wish I had some place where I could go in out of ______.
3.     They saw the _____ from the steamers; they saw the unending crowd of doll-like person’s thrown up out of the ground by the new Tube Station at the south end of Hammersmith Bridge.
4.     Here’s the chance to see the classic moment when Colin Firth, playing the ______ Mr Darcy takes a plunge in the lake.
5.     Time has not granted him to embody in a permanent shape a ______ of his personal experiences and strange adventures in the three quarters of the globe.
6.     He obtained a commission in a squadron of ______ then attached to the division of General Diego Leon, and was actively engaged in several of the most important combats of the campaign.
7.     Preparing himself by previous excursions on foot, in North Africa and Algeria, he sailed from Liverpool early in December last for Ichaboe where we have already ______ establishments.
8.     The _____ traveler had received from the agents of these establishments such favourable accounts of the nations towards the interior, as also of the nature of the climate, that he has the most sanguine hopes.
9.     Then, pour strawberry, _____, and pineapple syrup over the scoops of icecream.
10.I also wish to express my gratitude to The Wide World Magazine for the ______ of permitting me to publish the narrative from its pages.
11.The trapeze artists, tight rope-walkers and ______ riders astonished them.
12.Despite his _____ intellectual abilities, he spent most of his time hanging out, staying up late, and missing classes by sleeping until noon.
13.Consider also data from an ongoing study of eighty-one _____ and salutatorians from the 1981 class in Illinois high schools.
14.It tells you nothing about how they react to the ______ of life.
15.Four-year-old Judy might seem a wallflower among her more _____ playmates.
16.I took _____ at the word “supposed”.

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

ASPARAGUS SOUP

Use 1 can of asparagus, cut off the tips, and lay them aside. Cut up the stalks, cover with 4 cups of cold milk (or use half water and half milk), and let cook slowly in a double boiler for half an hour; then strain, pressing the asparagus well to extract the flavour. Return to the saucepan, add 1 teaspoon of sugar, 1 tablespoon of butter, into which 1 teaspoon of flour has been made smooth, season generously with salt and pepper, add the asparagus tips, 1 cup of milk, and, just before serving, 1 tablespoon of whipped cream. A tablespoon of minced onion fried for ten minutes in butter is sometimes added to the stalks while cooking.

Read the text and find these words: 

asparagus 
mince
stalk
tip
extract
smooth
generous
boil
strain
aside

Monday, November 20, 2017

Vocabulary Task


dampness
belt
pulp
tout
lonesome
mayhem
precipice
vantage
vanguard


1.     A marked peculiarity of the class we have under consideration is that when they arrived in the country, they pushed through the ranks of the colonists, and, assuming the _____, continued at the head of the advance, first taking possession of Kentucky and Tennessee, then settling Mississipi and Missouri.
2.     These men have come in to sell the “fei”, or wild banana, which is only found on the highest and most perilous of the mountain _____.
3.     All the children had gone in by this time, as it was getting dark and rather _____.
4.     If it comes to the worst I can sleep out here on the sands, but I don’t like to do it, as the _____ will make my rheumatism worse.
5.     There are several ways to join the _____.
6.     The crowds at this point are only just starting to gather, so you can get a good _____. Point for the ham-on-the-pole.
7.     If you’re making your own way the festival, try to purchase your ticket in advance – they tend to sell out online weeks prior to the event, but you can often grab last-minute tickets from _____ in Valencia.
8.     A change of clothes is a good idea – you won’t be allowed on most buses back to Valencia if you’re covered in _____.
9.     The crazed tomato-throwers take no prisoners; cameras are seen as positive invitations to _____ the owner.