Find the definitions of the words in bold.
The first thing to parties bent on roughing it is the selection of a tent, which can be hired of any of the sail-makers, for any length of time, and at a reasonable price. For a party of seven or eight, an eight-foot wall-tent, is the best. Dig a trench around the outside to avoid nocturnal baptism the first time it rains. The beds can be comfortably arranged in the rear of the tent, by laying rubber blankets on the ground; on which lay boards slightly raised for the head, and sloping to the ground at the foot. These beds should be placed so that the people will lie with their heads at the sides of the tent and feet toward the center. On the boards spread straw, hay, or dry seaweed, then the blankets. Everything used about the bed should be laid in the sun every day. Some prefer sleeping on the ground rolled up in a blanket; but this is imprudent, except in very dry localities.
The next important thing is the stove. The top of a common cooking-stove with covers and stove-pipe to fit, which can be bought at any junk-shop for a trifle, serves very well in dry weather. Dig out a place in the side of a bank the size and shape of the stove-top, about two feet deep, and line three sides with brick or stones, with the front open. Regulate the draught by placing something in front for a blower.
In regard to COOKING UTENSILS, coffee and tea pots should not have spouts, but lips: and the lips should be riveted on. It is foolish for a party going any distance to try to carry crockery. Have tin plates and cups made, and they will last you for all your camping life. They can be kept clean by occasionally scouring them with sand if on the beach, and with ashes if in the mountains; or, which rub on a cloth and then rub the tin with the cloth. Four or six cakes of this will give you much comfort and neatness.
If you can carry a farina kettle with you, and you use it with care, it will be almost invaluable to you, as by that means you can always be sure that your oatmeal, hominy, rice, etc. will always be cooked without burning. Always be sure that there is enough water in the bottom kettle.
CLEANLINESS.—It is very important that perfect cleanliness be observed in camp, as it adds much to health and comfort. When you pitch your tent, select a spot a little distance from it, for the refuse. Here dig a deep hole, if your stay is to be long, and into this hole throw the debris, each time covering with some of the earth which you have dug out. By this means you can keep the place clean and sweet.
CLOTHING.—Both ladies and gentlemen should dress in flannel throughout. One change of under-flannel is enough extra clothes to carry, but be sure to take plenty of stockings. Have your boots well-made and with broad soles. For hats, broad-brimmed felt hats are the lightest and coolest.
SOAP.—Carry plenty of soap for bathing, for washing dishes, and clothes. Take three or four pounds of baking soda with you to use for bathing purposes; and, if needed, for your mead and cooking.
PROVISIONS for camp-life will depend much upon the locality, and the requirements of the party; the following suggestions however, may be serviceable in making an outfit: when it can be obtained take flour, wheat, rye. From this you will always be sure of good bread and griddle-cakes. Salt pork, smoked ham, bologna sausage, eggs, dried beef, salt fish. Game, fresh fish, and fresh meat are supposed to be obtained in the vicinity of camp. Bread, crackers. Canned fruit and vegetables, where fresh cannot be obtained. Potatoes, beans, onions, molasses, sugar, salt, pepper, mustard, vinegar, butter, coffee, tea, chocolate, rice, oatmeal, baking soda, ginger, spice, soap, paraffin candles, and kerosene oil.
THE ESSENTIAL UTENSILS are tin kettles with covers, coffee-pot, spiders with covers, gridiron, pans, basins, tin cups, pails, cans, knives, forks, spoons, lanterns, bags, ropes, strings, thread, needles, matches, shovel, axe, hammer, nails, slicking plaster, Jamaica ginger, fishing tackle, gun and ammunition, towels, stockings, and flannel garments. Each and every one of these articles may be found serviceable. The value of a match, a string, knife, a pin, or a pinch of salt, can never be realized, until in the woods or on the water the need of them has been felt. Parties scorning the idea of bothering with so many things when simply going out to rough it, will find it better to see that everything is provided before starting; even then, they will find camp life rough enough.